Astrochemistry

Detected Interstellar Molecules

There are currently 135 detected interstellar molecules. The following table lists all currently detected molecular species (as of 06 Jan 2014).

2 Atoms

FormulaNameReference
AlFAluminum monofluorideCernicharo & Guelin (1987)
CF+FluoromethylidyniumNeufeld (2006)
CHMethylidyne radicalAdams (1941)
CSCarbon monosulfideZiurys (2006)
FeOIron oxideFuruya et a. (2003)
H2Molecular hydrogenAdams (1970)
HClHydrogen chlorideBlake & Phillips (1985)
HFHydrogen fluorideNeufeld et al. (1997)
OHHydroxyl radicalZiurys (2006)
KClPotassium chlorideCernicharo & Guelin (1987)
NHNitrogen monohydrideMeyer & Roth (1991)
N2Molecular nitrogenKnauth et al. (2004)
NONitric oxideMcGonagle et al. (1990)
NSNitrogen sulfideZiurys (2006)
NaClSodium chlorideCernicharo & Guelin (1987)
NaISodium iodideWhiteoak & Gardner (1985)
O2Molecular oxygenLarsson et al. (2007)
PNPhosphorous nitrideZiurys (1987)
POPhosphorous monoxideTenenbaum, Woolf, & Ziurys (2007)
SHSulphur monohydrideYamamura, Kawaguchi, & Ridgway (2000)
AlClAluminum monochlorideCernicharo & Guelin (1987)
AlOAluminum monoxideTenenbaum & Ziurys (2009)
CNCyanogen radicalAdams (1941)
COCarbon monoxideLatter, Walker, & Maloney (1993)
C2EthyneLambert, Sheffer, & Federman (1995)
SOSulfur monoxideSmith (1988)
SiCCarborundumPascoli & Comeau (1995)
SiNSilicon mononitride
SiOSilicon sonoxide
SiSSilicon monosulfide
TiOTitanium oxide
OCSCarbonyl sulfideGoldsmith & Linke (1981)

3 Atoms

FormulaNameReference
AlOHAluminum hydroxideTenenbaum & Ziurys (2010)
C2HEthynyl radical
C2ODicarbon monoxideOhishi et al. (1991)
CO2Carbon dioxide
FeCNIron cyanideZack, Halfen, & Ziurys (2011)
H3+Protenated molecular hydrogenGeballe & Oka (1996)
CH2Methylene radical
H2+ChloroniumLis et al. (2010)
H2OWaterHelmich et al. (1996)
HO2HydroperoxylParise, Bergman, & Du (2012)
H2SHydrogen sulphide
HCNHydrogen cyanideSnyder &: Buhl (1971)
HNCHydrogen isocyanide
HCPPhosphaethyneAgúndez, Cernicharo, & Guélin (2007)
HCS+Thioformyl
N2H+Diazenylium
HNONitroxylHollis et al. (1991)
KCNPotassium cynanide
MgCNMagnesium cynanide
MgNCMagnesium isocyanide
NH2Amino radicalvan Dishoeck et al. (1993)
N2ONitrous oxideZiurys et al. (1994)
NaCNSodium cyanide
NaOHSodium hydroxideHollis & Rhodes (1982)
O3OzonePhillips & Knapp (1980)
SO2Sulfur dioxide
c-SiC2Silicon dicarbidePascoli & Comeau (1995)
SiCNSilicon cyanideGuélin et al. (2004)
SiNCSilicon isocyanide
TiO2Titanium dioxide

4 Atoms

FormulaNameReference
CH3Methyl radicalFeuchtgruber et al. (2000)
C3NCyanoethynyl
C3OTricarbon monoxide
H3O+HydroniumWooten et al. (1991)
C2H2AcetyleneBetz (1981)
H2CNMethyl anidogenOhishi et al. (1994)
H2COFormaldehyde
H2CSThioformaldehydeMinh, Irvine, & Brewer (1991)
HCCNAcetonitrileCernicharo & Guelin (1991)
HOCO+Protenated carbon dioxideMinh, Irvine, & Ziurys
HCNOFulminic acidMarcelino et al. (2009)
HOCNCyanic acidBrünken et al. (2010)
HOOHHydrogen peroxide Bergman, Parise, Liseau, Larsson, Olofsson, Menten, & Güsten (2011)
HNCOIsocyanic acid
HNCSIsothiocyanic acidFrerking, Linke, & Thaddeus (1979)
NH3AmmoniaNguyen-Q-Rieu, Graham, & Bujarrabal (1984)
HSCNThiocyanic acidHalfen et al. (2009)

5 Atoms

FormulaNameReference
NH4+Ammonium ion
CH4Methane
CH3OMethoxy radicalCernicharo et al. (2012)
c-C3H2Cyclopropenylidene
l-C3H2Propandienylidene
H2CCNCyanomethyl
H2C2OKetene
H2CNHMethylenimineDickens et al. (1997)
HNCNHMethanediimineMcGuire et al. (2012)
C4HButadiynylCernicharo et al. (2007)
HC3NCyanoacetylene
HCCNCIsocyanoethyneKawaguchi et al. (1992)
HCOOHFormic acid
NH2CNCyanamideTurener et al. (1975)
CNCHOCyanoformaldehydeRemijan et al. (2008)
SiH4SilaneGoldhaber & Betz (1984)

6 Atoms

FormulaNameReference
c-H2C3OCyclopropenone
C2H4EthyleneBetz (1981)
CH3CNMethyl cyanide
CH3NCMethyl isocyanideRemijan et al. (2005)
CH3OHMethanol
CH3SHMethanethiol
l-H2C4DiacetyleneCernicharo (1997)
NH2CHOFormamide
HC2CHOPropynalIrvine (1988)
CH2CNHKetenimine

7 Atoms

FormulaNameReference
c-C2H4OEthylene oxideDickens et al. (1997)b
CH3C2HMethylacetylene
CH3NH2MethylamineKaifu, Takagi, & Kojima (1975)
CH2CHCNVinyl cyanide
CH2CHCOHPropenol
CH3CHOAcetaldehyde

8 Atoms

FormulaNameReference
CH3C3CNMethylcyanoacetylene
CH2OHCHOGlycolaldehyde
HCOOCH3Methyl formate
CH3COOHAcetic acidMehringer et al. (1997)
CH2CHCHOPropenal
CH2CCHCNCyanoalleneLovas et al. (2006)
CH3CHNHEthanimineLoomis et al. (2013)
NH2CH2CNAminoacetonitrileBelloche et al. (2008)

9 Atoms

FormulaNameReference
CH3C4HMethyldiacetylene
(CH3)2ODimethyl etherSnyder et al. (1974)
CH3CH2CNEthyl cyanide
CH3CONH2AcetamideHollis et al. (2006)
CH3CH2OHEthanolZuckerman et al. (1975)
CH3CHCH2PropeneMarcelino et al. (2007)

10 Atoms

FormulaNameReference
(CH3)2COAcetone
(CH2OH)2Ethylene glycolHollis et al. (2002)
CH3CH2CHOPropanal

11 Atoms

FormulaNameReference
CH3CH2OCHOEthyl formateBelloche et al. (2009)
CH3COOCH3Methyl acetateTercero et al. 2013
CH3CH2OCH3Ethyl methyl etherFuchs et al. (2005)

12 Atoms

FormulaNameReference
C6h6BenzeneCernicharo (1997)
CH3CH2CH2CNPropyl cyanideBelloche et al. (2009)

Any comments or questions, contact me: friedel@astro.illinois.edu
© 2015, D. N. Friedel